These Foods Help You Stay Away From Common Gynaecological Problems

Good nutrition is the starting point of a healthy lifestyle. It's common knowledge that a balanced diet combined with regular exercise can help you stay fit and maintain a healthy weight. But most women are unaware that proper nutrition can help avoid gynecological diseases as well. A regular intake of the right fruits, vegetables, and minerals can ensure you have a healthy reproductive system.

Here's how to leak the right foods for better gynecological health:

  1. Whole Grains: Higher levels of estrogen increase the risk of breast diseases caused by the rapid growth of cells in the mammary glands. The consumption of whole grains can cut this risk, by helping regulate the levels of estrogen in the blood. Grains are also a good source of iodine that stimulates the hormones secreted by the pituitary gland and promotes easy maturity and release of eggs.
  2. Red fruits and vegetables: Red fruits and vegetables contain phytochemicals (chemical compounds produced naturally in plants) that effectively inhibit the growth of gynecological tumors cells while reducing their responsiveness to estrogen. Include red apples, red peppers, onions, grapes, and other red fruits in your diet to reap the benefits of this wonder nutrient.
  3. Soy: Soy products effectively regulate the secretion of the endocrine glands – hormones that regulate the function of the reproductive system as well as control metabolism and growth. Milk, tofu, soya seeds, soy sauce, etc can effectively regulate the estrogen level in the body and help maintain a healthy reproductive system.
  4. Bananas: Bananas contain a high content of vitamin B6 that can effectively stabilize nerves and alleviate pain during menstruation.
  5. Calcium: calcium-rich foods such as milk and yogurt help prevent ovarian diseases and control the growth of cancer cells.
  6. Folic acid: Food rich in folic acid, such as animal liver, spinach, cabbage, leeks, fish, eggs, and cereal can effectively prevent and reduce the chances of cervical cancer.
  7. Iron: Anemia affects a majority of women, causing problems in the functioning of the ovaries. Consumption of red meat, seafood, and beans along with green leafy vegetables is necessary to supplement natural iron intake. In addition, avoiding strong tea or coffee during the menstrual period helps maintain smooth absorption of iron

Although these foods can not completely ensure the prevention of gynecological issues but they sure help you stay stronger to deal with problems, if consumed regularly.

While these natural remedies often render impressive results, it is always safe to consult a Gynecologist & Obstetrician Doctor when it comes to any serious gynecological issues.

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Discover The Healing Benefits Of Non Surgical Methods For Prolapsed Uterus Treatment

A prolapsed uterus is the serious problem that affects the uterus of a woman and causes it to fall down into the vagina due to the weakness in the muscles of pelvic region. The health and wellness lies in curing the problem with the effective solutions that deliver consistent results while regulating the symptoms. Go beyond the surgical means to control the situation and trust on the natural active ingredients so you will not need to remove the organ although partially nor completely.

The non surgical treatments are the best ways to fight against the disease effectively without disturbing the balance of your daily routine and affecting your health. Under the non surgical methods, the healthcare care providers have combined the wisdom of Ayurveda with the modern approaches so the patients can get rid of the problem without under the knife. The holistic system is pure and organic to treat the causes and symptoms of the disorder without affecting the quality of the life.

The oral dosages prepared with the Ayurvedic herbs and plant extracts help to cure the problem naturally and strengthen the muscles of the organ as before. All the ingredients are added to target the problem, so, you can get rid of it from its roots. The dosage is free from all the chemicals as well as added preservatives so it will not harm you any way. Straight from the mother's nature the medicine targets the problem and provide relieve from all the Doshas. The handcrafted solution is better than going for surgical methods as they are not painful and the patient is not bound to the removal of the organ.

The Time Tested And Balanced Prescription Benefits You In Several Ways: –

  • Original and natural solution performs well on the roots of the disorder concerning the wellbeing, overall health, and purity of intention.
  • It is configured to target the problem from the roots in order to prevent re-occurrence. It reduces the chances of reformation or redevelopment of the disorder, which is common under the surgical methods.
  • Since all the ingredients are safe and natural, they do not show any harsh effects on the body or harm you either way.
  • It treats the problem even if the patient is suffering at the last stage. The polyherbal formula is safe and is founded to get fast treat from the problem in all natural ways.

In addition, the medicine is prepared just before the treatment, which greatly reduces the chances of microbial growth and rancidity.

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From Cause To Cure, Everything You Need To Know About A Prolapsed Uterus

The uterus of a woman hangs freely, so, it can move in all directions and it is mainly supported by the pelvic floor. Due to the weakening of the muscles and tissues of the pelvic floor when they are no longer able to support the uterus, so, it sags down from its actual position into the vaginal canal. The condition of displacement of the uterus is known as the elaborated Uterus, which is not a life-threatening disease, but its symptoms and level of severality affect the regular routine. The major cause of weakening or any damage in the muscles is distension of the uterus because of multiple vaginal deliveries, loss of estrogen, aging and deficiency of essential vitamins and minerals to the muscles.

These are the main causes of the condition and some of the signs that help you identify it are:

  • Feeling of the uterus protrudes out of the vagina and it majorly happens at the third degree
  • Vaginal bleeding with no reasons
  • Urinary and recurrent bladder infection
  • Difficult bowel movement
  • Constipation, backache, and problem with sexual intercourse
  • Pelvic pain and feeling of sitting on the ball
  • Heavy feeling in the pelvic floor
  • Increased discharge

These are a few signs that give you the signal that you are suffering from the prolapsed uterus and you need to visit the doctor at the earliest. Diagnose of the state includes evaluation of warning signs and pelvic examination by the doctors. To avoid the worse situation, it is important to take the treatment as soon as you come to know about the condition. There are a number of treatments to a prolapsed uterus available in the modern science, such as natural estrogen therapy, pessaries, hysterectomy, uterus suspension, etc. But all the treatments have some possible complications and after effects.

Therefore, choosing any of the above methods can put your life at stake, or else, you need to bear a lot of pain, which you can avoid easily with the prolapsed uterus treatment by the non-surgical method. Yes, ayurveda has the solution to the problem and you do not need to opt for any surgery or other option mentioned above. The best part about this non-surgical or ayurveda treatment is there no risk associated with it and it treats the condition permanently. No pain, just natural remedies and a few of pelvic floor exercises are enough to put your life back on the track. You can recover from the condition, so, there is no need to suffer in the silence anymore.

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Important Things A Woman Should Know About Prolapsed Uterus

A prolapsed uterus is very common nowdays and ignoring it is not the solution to get rid out of the problem. Every problem comes with a solution and for best results and to recover faster you should go for the treatment before it's too late. It's no secret that symptoms of a prolapsed uterus is not only annoying but also embarrassing, therefore, you need to go for the treatment at the earliest. When it comes to understanding and evaluating the condition, so, knowledge is a power. Here we share some important information a woman should know about the cause and cure.

So, Let's Bring The Released Uterus Out Of The Shadow:

  • You Are Not Alone: ​​No doubt, a prolapsed uterus is a very common problem, but still, there are a number of women who are not aware of the disease and therefore, they are not comfortable to share it with anyone. However, suffering in silence is not the solution, get out of the bed and face the problem as you are not alone, there are many other women also suffering from the disease. So, you should not feel bad about it, rather go and treat it at the earliest.
  • Consider Your Future Family Planning: When it comes to the Revised Uterus Treatment, so, people think that going under the knife is only the solution to cure the condition. Though, it is not the truth. Firstly, there is a non surgical or many other treatments available than surgery to cure the disease and secondly, surgery is not safe if you have any future baby planning. Because baby delivery will reoccur the condition, so, it is important to know the after-effect of any treatment you are about to choose.
  • Sharing Problem With Other Can Be The Solution: It's an undeniable truth that shares any such problem with the third person may embarrass you, but it is highly recommended to all the women do not think that you are alone. If you share the problem, so, chances you will get the right recommendation. They will stand by you through thick and thin and also help you to fight against the problem.

All these points are important for a woman to understand if they actually want to treat the prolapsed uterus. The condition is easy to cure you just need to consult the expert. Always remember, to every problem there is a solution just need to know about it.

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Is Prolapsed Uterus Treatment Possible Without Any Surgery?

A prolapsed uterus is a very common problem in which the uterus of women slips down from its actual position into the vaginal canal and in extreme cases, outside the vagina. It is the most disturbing and embarrassing condition for a woman and spares no age group. The condition does not create any peril to your life, but can be painful and need immediate care. A number of medical conditions are associated with the diseases because they weakened the muscles that hold the uterus in its place. Other organ displacements people suffering from the condition face are:

  • Cystocele: It majorly occurs when a prolapsed bladder bulges through the vaginal wall. This may create the condition of urinary frequency, retention, and loss of urine.
  • Rectocele: Another organ displacement problem associated with the prolapsed uterus is Rectocele in which the rectum bulges through the vaginal floor. This condition makes the bowel movement difficult.
  • Enterocele: In this condition, the herniation of the upper vaginal wall where a small bowel portion bulges into the vagina. This condition leads to a backache and gives you the sensation of pulling into the vagina.

Childbirth, aging, major surgery in pelvic area, training, chronic coughing, obesity are some of the common reasons that cause the prolapsed uterus. Women suffering from the condition have the misconception that surgery is the only way to cure the condition, which is not a complete truth. Apart from surgery, you can go for the natural estrogen therapy, pessaries, and ayurvedic or non surgical method. Each and every method of treatment has its own advantages and disadvantages, so, you have to be careful to make a smart decision to kick-off the problem at the earliest.

Going for the surgery is not only painful, but risky too. Also, the Natural Estrogen Therapy and insertion Pessaries may also have a number of side effects that you need to remember before choosing any of the methods.

Prolapsed uterus treatment by ayurvedic or non surgical method is safe among all its treatments available as it is pain-free and incorporated with the natural or herbal remedies, which are safe for your body and overall health. Also, the use of ayurvedic drugs eliminates the risk of its reappearance and does not have any side effects on your body. From the above, it is clear that the treatment of a prolapsed uterus without any surgery is possible and safe; every woman suffering from the condition should go for this option as it helps them recover faster.

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Postpartum Anxiety – The Little Known Diagnosis

Most people have heard of PPD, or postpartum depression, but few have heard of postpartum anxiety. This little known diagnosis describes more attention.

Every mother experiences some anxiety, especially if it is their first baby. However, it can escalate out of control. You may not even be able to function. Unfortunately, only 20% of doctors screen for this kind of anxiety.

Much of this is bought on by hormonal changes in your body after delivery. If for whatever reason you breastfeed, there is a huge drop in your hormones in an outrageously quick pace.

You are most vulnerable if:

  • You have a history of anxiety
  • You are a perfectionist who feeds into the “supermom” myth
  • If you have had miscarraiges in the past
  • If you have had a high risk pregnancy

There are risks for both you and your baby. For you, there is an increased risk of postpartum depression and a possible vulnerability to PTSD. The risks for your baby are even greater. Babies with mothers who have postpartum anxiety may have more difficulty in new situations and behavioral and emotional problems in their preschool years. It can also lead to babies having a “difficult” temperament and making them difficult to soothe. Research has shown that at even at the age of fifteen there were problems such as attention span and impulsivity.

If you believe that you have anxiety that is more than what the average mother would experience and have a history that has been described above, please see your obstetrician. There is hope and different treatment options.

One possible option is cognitive behavioral therapy, or CBT. Cognitive behavioral therapy is a type of psychotherapy that focuses on your thoughts and moods by changing how you think so that it will change how you feel. There are many benefits. If you are breastfeeding, you will not have to expose your child to the medication in your system. The techniques your therapist will teach you will help you with your anxiety now and in the future. Best of all, there is less of a chance of a relapse of your symptoms with CBT than with medications. However, you must be willing to invest a lot of time and effort into it, and the exposure based techniques can probably increase your anxiety for a short period. There is also the possibility of it being difficult to find a certified trained CBT therapist.

On the other hand, you may need medications (either alone or in combination with therapy). There are antidepressants that treat other problems (in this case anxiety), but they can cause increased feelings of anxiety in the first 2-4 weeks, so it is important to utilize relaxation techniques during this period. There are also anti-anxiety medications that will deal with your physical symptoms of anxiety. It may be a difficult decision for you, especially if you are nursing, but when the anxiety is sufficient enough the benefits can outweigh the risks, like if you are having thoughts of hurting yourself or your child.

When talking to your doctor about medication, there are certain questions you should ask. They include:

  • What are the risks to myself and my baby?
  • Are there any other treatment options?
  • What are the risks to myself or my child if my anxiety is left untreated?
  • Do I need to see a specialist such as a psychiatrist about medications?

Remember that you are not alone, and help is out there. Do not suffer in silence for both you and your child's sake.

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Urine Stinks, So Why Do Men Drip On Floors?

In recent days I have been forced to use a unisex toilet. First in the hospital while waiting for attention and in the second in an X-ray facility. On both occasions there were drip stains on the floor and they stunk. That means the pollutant sticks to shoes and is transported by them into other situations as well as making them smelly. The point is that men have the ability to use toilet paper but something prevails them from doing so.

If they are so careless about that part of their hygiene what abut washing their hands? It stands to reason that most of them would probably not even consider it. They then handle the lock and door handle making it dirty with possible faecal material and urine residue.

The facts about spreading germs and causing illnesses in other people because of their bad habits is obviously not in the agenda. There are no signs to suggest they clean themselves properly and wash afterwards, so why not at least put these up to remind them that they are not the only ones using the resource.

The next point would be about the need for unisex when it is the women who must up with these things. But other men have to tolerate it as well.

This is a health matter and one that needs to be addressed. Sick people especially do not need enter such a foul-smelling place because there is no where else to go. If they have to vomit the thought of bending over the toilet and being engulfed with that stink is beyond thinking about. In a hospital emergency department so many must have met this problem.

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PCOS – An Epidemic That’s Making Women Infertile

A recent research found that tens of millions of women suffer from PCOS (Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome). This has already placed PCOS on its way to qualify as an epidemic, and we are not taking the necessary steps yet.

PCOS has been perceived as one of the main reasons behind infertility and with its impacts on cardiovascular health, it additionally adds to one of the largest reasons for death. Tragically there is an absence of data, awareness and knowledge about PCOS, making it hard and difficult to diagnoseose effectively.

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome can lead to diabetes, high cholesterol and an increase in the risk of endometrial cancer, if left undiagnosed or untreated. It becomes quite crucial to treat and diagnose PCOS as early as possible, if patients want to stay away from other severe health issues and illnesses.

Is PCOS A Matter Of Concern?

PCOS can be defined as the occurrence of numerous cysts on the ovaries, and a large group of different health issues that accompany them, which incorporates absence of ovulation and menstrual irregularities, growth of facial hair, baldness, acne and excess weight gain. Females experiencing this condition may likewise have fluctuating levels of insulin resistance and a high occurrence of Type 2 diabetes, elevated cholesterol and high androgen levels.

What Are The Major Symptoms Of PCOS?

A woman suffering from Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome may:

  • stop ovulating, or ovulation just becomes infrequent
  • experience difficulty in getting pregnant
  • stop having periods, or periods become irregular or painful
  • face excess hair on the face and body
  • experience the ill effects of acne
  • have to deal with high blood pressure
  • experience the ill effects of elevated cholesterol
  • develop insulin resistance, or high levels of insulin
  • gain weight at a steady rate without even consuming high amount of food
  • hair thinning and breakage
  • have to deal with frequent mood changes

Why Does PCOS Happen?

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome occurs when a female stops ovulating, which results in a disturbance in the usual, repetitive interrelationship among the hormones in her body, ovaries and brain. The correct reason for PCOS is still not known. Before, it was suspected that Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome was caused completely by high androgen production. Later researches demonstrated that Metabolic Syndrome related with insulin resistance, and elevated amounts of insulin are behind the incidence of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

The major problem that arises with PCOS is that when women try to lose the weight, they find that it either can not be loosed, or they regain weight once the diet is completed. This makes it really important for you to visit best doctor for PCOS Treatment who can help you to manage your PCOS problem.

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Major Reasons And Causes Of Female Infertility

Female infertility is one of the most helpless conditions that a woman can face. Infertility means that the woman is fit to bear a child and would have to face a lot of hurdles in order to be able to bear one. Many people try to get rid of infertility through different surgical or medical ways and many fears that those ways might end up making room for more complications. Indeed, that is not rare. Many times, the chemicals or medicines that are given in order to abolish infertility bring in one side effect or another, posing a serious threat on the life of the woman. Thus, it is highly recommended to use ways that are completely natural, and assure the safety of the child bearer through Ayurvedic medicines for infertility.

Ayurveda is the most effective and natural ways of curing an illness like infertility. It does not pose any threat and makes sure that the woman is safe during the entire treatment. Also, it is entirely devoid of chemicals and is only made of herbs and leaves which possess high medicinal values.

Female infertility is common since it comes into effect from extremely common problems such as hormone problems, physical problems, environmental factors and lifestyle factors. But, the natural herbal solutions provide with great remedies for female infertility and do not cause any trouble later. The conceiving is also inherently natural, and not harder than mothers devoid of infertility. Therefore, Ayurvedic medicines for infertility bring back and fulfill your lost hope of a beautiful motherhood without asking too much from you in return.

There are many ways in which Ayurvedic medicines can be used in case of female infertility –

Hormonal Imbalance

Ayurveda has several relief strategies for hormonal problems which are quite common in young women. The key reasons for infertility have been declared as-

  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), which is a hormonal disorder which enlarges the ovaries which cysts on the outer edge of the ovaries. Many women get affected to this and this is one of the main reasons of late pregnancy due to irregular menstruation cycle or in some cases, infertility.
  • Polycystic Ovarian Disease (PCOD), is the same as PCOS, but these occur at regular intervals and disrupt the menstrual cycle to a good extent. The enlarged ovary produces excess estrogenic and androgen hormones and ovulation does not take place at all, which causes infertility.

For these common cases, herbs such as Anchanar Guggul, Pushptanma Ras, and Arogyavardhani Vati are provided as medicines to reduce the cyst and help regaining normal menstrual cycles. These herbs help in the process of menstruation to take place at the proper moment, every month by disarming the conditions of PCOS and PCOD which in turn would have caused infertility or is the reason behind it. Covering up the hormonal imbalance with the help of Ayurveda is one of the major steps that can be taken to abolish infertility.

Physical Problems

Sometimes women can not conceive due to physical problems which lead to a disbalance within the body. These problems, make the woman weak from the interior and in return, fail to conceive in the proper way. Athletes or people who put in a lot of physical labor in their work have this problem mostly. These problems do not get cured in a surgical way completely, rather than adds to more problems as these. Female infertility treatment in the Ayurvedic way helps to shun these problems away and in the proper way, without adding extra hardship or labor.

Ayurveda would not disappoint you since it comes directly from nature which can cure any disease whatever. Thus, Ayurveda promises to make your female infertility treatment a good venture without any risks or regrets.

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Understanding The Concerns Related To Prolapsed Uterus Treatment By Non Surgical Methods

Every organ of a human body has a different function to perform which is necessary for the sustainment of the life. The cells and tissues of human body regulate the functioning of different organs and similarly female body has the pelvic region whose tissues and ligaments support the womb or uterus. The uterus plays a vital role in providing life to the zygote, which develops into the young one over the period of nine months.

What Is A Revised Uterus?

The uterus of the woman is supported with the ligaments and muscles of the pelvic region and when these muscles and ligaments stop supporting the organ, it becomes weak and falls down to the vagina. This happens due to the different reasons like natural loss of estrogen hormones, weakness in the muscles, repeated child-birth, menopause, aging, etc.

Such conditions lead the falling of the organ into the vagina through the different stages which is categorized into four stages to treat the problem effectively. Out of the different methods of treating the problem, non surgical methods are considered as the best as it heals the problem to the roots no matter at what stage the patient is. The doctors and health care providers also recommend Kegel exercises to strengthen the pelvic region.

Misconceptions Related To The Revised Uterus Treatment: –

  • Side Effects – The side effects of the surgeries and various other method is a common problem so one should need to be careful while taking the herbal therapies or oral medicines. The oral dosage is prepared with the rarest herbs to provide the sigh of relieve to the patients.
  • Microbial Growth – The foremost concern about the herbal remedies is microbial growth as the dosage is made with the rare herbs, which are at the risk of rancidity over a certain time period. However, this can be avoided through preparing the medicine beforehand when the patient is to be treated with the herbal remedies.
  • Reoccurrence – The problem of recurrence of a prolapsed uterus is common with the different methods. However, the non surgical methods of treating the problem ensure that there will be no redevelopment of the problem.
  • Need For Organ Removal – When the problem is severe, the doctors suggest the patient to remove the organ with the surgical methods. However, it is easy to cure with the herbal medicines and with the time, it ends the need for the surgeries as well as strengntens the pelvic region like before.

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Sciatica In Pregnancy

The period of pregnancy is full of struggles. Women face various problems during pregnancy, and sciatica is one of these. Therefore, you should know the nature, reasons and the ways to deal with it. In this article, we will give you an insight into this problem.

Nature And Reasons For Sciatica:

Sciatica is the pain in the lower extremity. The other name is lumbago. Lumbago is particularly, felt from the lower back, to behind the thighs. The pain may travel down below the knees.

When the sciatic nerve, located on the back, and running through the lower extremitudes, experiences firmness or irritation, you experience lumbago.

Pregnancy and Sciatica:

The main reasons for this pain during pregnancy is your bad body postures. Due to the weight of your baby, you sway forward, and your center of gravity moves forward. Due to this, you are unable to maintain the correct alignment of your body, and to bad body postures. As the baby grows, your abdominal muscles are stretched and can not contract. Due to this, your lower back muscles do not align properly. The result is a severe pain.

Poor or bad body postures during this period are a natural phenomenon, and these may also put your baby at risk. But, you can avoid this by learning how to get better control of your body postures. Due to a change in the center of gravity, your body is right to tilt forward. You can avoid this with a little practice. Your body, then, will automatically adopt the correct postures, without any difficulty.

Treatment for Sciatica:

You can deal with this pain by adopting natural techniques. Medication, at this stage, can hamper the development of the fetus and you may also face problems at the time of delivery. By adopting the correct body postures, you can avoid this pain.

Maintaining Healthy Posture While Standing:

1. Your ear, shoulder, and hip should be all aligned in one line.

2. Your lower back should not sway forward, so, maintain your pelvic tilt at all the times.

3. You should not stand in the same position for a long time.

4. Avoid high heels during this period. Wear low heels comfortable shoes.

5. Wear a maternity support belt.

Maintaining Good Postures While Sitting:

1) Maintain pelvic tilt, and avoid tilting forward.

2) Sit in such a position that your knees are at an equal level with your hips.

3) Do not cross your legs. This posture will decrease your blood circulation.

Correct Postures While Lying On Your Back:

You should not lie on your back for a long time. Your large blood vessels may be compressed, reducing blood flow and oxygen supply to your baby. And, if you lie, you should place a pillow under your knees.

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Role of Antioxidants For Improvement of Semen Parameters

Semen analysis is important in the assessment of infertile couples. The quality of sperm is a measure of both the sperm's genetic integrity and its capacity for fertilizing an oocyte. Poor sperm quality has been associated with abnormal sperm motility, failure of sperm recognition of the zona pellucida and susceptibility to complete the processes of fertilization.

One in five infertile couples the problem lies solely in the male partner. It is estimated that one in 20 men has some sort of fertility problem with low numbers of sperm in his ejaculate. However, only about one in every 100 men has no sperm in his ejaculate.

Oxidative Stress:

Oxidative stress is one of the most common reason in the destruction of sperm quality and the adverse of male reproductive health. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) alter the integrity of spermatozoa DNA and result in DNA fragmentation. Free radicals also alter sperm function and structure, which impairs all semen parameters.

Mature spermatozoa are enclosed in a polyunsaturated lipid membrane, which is vulnerable to oxidation in the presence of ROS, and it is the destruction of this fatty membrane that results in impaired sperm morphology and motility. High levels of ROS are not only associated with idiopathic male infertility but are also implicated in impaired pre-implantation embryonic development and an increased rate of early pregnancy loss. The production of ROS is a physiological process in normal cell metabolism, including mitochondrial respiration. To some extent, low levels of ROS provide certain positive effects such as gene regulation, intracellular signaling and specific to sperm cells, enhancement of the ability to bind to the zona pellucida.

When this level of ROS is above the threshold, it causes damage to the sperms. Antioxidants that are naturally found in semen include vitamins E and C, folate, zinc, selenium, carnitine and carotenoids. These antioxidants act as free radical scavengers that help to overcome ROS. DNA integrity of the spermatozoa is one of the major determinants of normal fertilization and embryo growth in natural and assisted conception.

The location of mitochondria, in sperm mid piece is unique in as it is positioned at the site of maximum energy requirement. It has been well established that mitochondria make ATP by the coupling of respiration generated proton gradient with the proton-driven phosphorylation of ATP. It is associated with the inner mitochondrial membrane where highly mutagenic oxygen radicals are generated as by-product in the respiratory chain and leakage of these free radicals from the respiratory chain makes the mitochondria as a major intracellular source of ROS.

Sperm with DNA damage that fertilize oocyte are repaired by oocyte repair mechanisms before first round of replication, to prevent replication of damaged DNA. But if the damage is too extensive and especially accumulation of oxidative by-products like ethno-nucleosides can inhibit oocyte nucleotide excision repair mechanisms and thenby result in propagation of damaged DNA.

A few of the available antioxidants and their roles are described here

Coenzyme Q10:

Coenzyme Q-10 is a non enzymatic antioxidant that is related to low-density lipoproteins and protects against per oxidative damage. Since it is an energy-promoting agent, it also enhances sperm motility. It is present in the mid-piece of sperms and recyclables vitamin E that preventing its pro-oxidant activity. It also acts a proton and electron carrier in electron transport chain and helps maintain cell membranes integrity and reduces the effect of reactive oxygen species in the sperm.

It is also known as ubiquinone because its found everywhere in the body and is known for its role in mitochondrial bioenergetics as electron and proton carrier. Studies demonstrated its presence in outer cellular membranes and in blood plasma. More recent data indicates that CoQ10 affects expression of genes involved in human cell signaling, metabolism and transport. Most CoQ10 deficiencies are due to autosomal recessive mutations, mitochondrial diseases, ageing-related oxidative stress and carcinogenesis. Some neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, cancer, fibromyalgia, muscular and cardiovascular diseases have also been associated with CoQ10 deficiency.

Reduction in levels of CoQ10 is observed in sperm cells and seminal plasma of varicocele associated asthenozoospermia. Sperm cells characterized by low motility and abnormal morphology have low levels of CoQ10.Seminal plasma is rich in antioxidants that support, protect and nourish the sperm. The sperm have low levels of antioxidants and DNA repair enzymes and therefore are very dependent on the surrounding plasma. Spermatozoal membranes while being rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids are susceptible to oxygen damage from lipid peroxidation and abnormal spermatozoa.

Dietary sources of ubiquinone include fish, meat, whole grains and certain vegetables such as parsley and cage.

Coenzyme Q10 is known to cause gastrointestinal disorders, headache, insomnia, bleeding, skin rash, elevated liver enzymes at higher doses.

Carnitines:

Carnitine is a water-soluble antioxidant mostly derived from the human diet that may play a role in sperm energy metabolism and provides the primary fuel for sperm motility. Spermatozoa exhibit increased L-carnitine and L-acetyl carnitine content during epididymal passage and acquisition of motility. Carnitines enhance the cellular energetics in mitochondria by facilitating the entry and utilization of free fatty acids within the mitochondria and also restore the phospholipid composition of mitochondrial membranes by decreasing fatty acid oxidation. carnitines protect sperm DNA and cell membranes from ROS-induced damage and apoptosis

A daily dose of 3 g given over a 3 or 4 month duration is significantly shown to improve patient's sperm motility from pre-treatment levels. Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, body odor, seizures are some of its side effects.

Vitamin E:

The daily requirement of vitamin E (a-tocopherol) varies from 50 to 800 mg, depending on the intake of fruits, vegetables, tea or wine. Vitamin E is an important lipid soluble antioxidant molecule in the cell membrane. It is thought to interrupt lipid peroxidation and enhance the activity of various antioxidants that scavenge free radicals generated during the univalent reduction of molecular oxygen and during normal activity of oxidative enzymes. The results of in vitro experiments suggest that vitamin E may protect spermatozoa from oxidative damage and loss of motility as well as enhance the sperm performance in the hamster egg penetration assay. Vitamin E treatment decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in spermatozoa down to normozoospermic levels, improving motility and the probability of achieving pregnancy.

Vitamin C:

Ascorbic Acid is water-soluble and a mid level ROS scavenger with high potency. It is found in concentrations 10-fold higher in seminal plasma than serum protecting human spermatozoa against endogenous oxidative damage by neutralizing hydroxyl, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide radical and preventing sperm agglutination. Vitamin C supplementation may minimize endogenous oxidative DNA damage, henceby reducing the risk of genetic defects, particularly in populations with low vitamin C levels (like in smokers). The hydrophilicity and lipophilicity of vitamins C and E may act synergistically to protect against peroxidative attack on spermatozoa.

Selenium:

Selenium (Se) may protect against oxidative sperm DNA damage and is required for normal testicular development, spermatogenesis, motility and function. The precise mechanism by which Se eliminates OS is not well-established. Se deficiency leads to impaired motility, breakage of the spermatozoal mid-piece and increased morphological abnormalities, mostly affecting the sperm head. The effectiveness of combined treatment with Se and vitamin E has been studied since Vitamin E works synergistically with Se as an antiperoxidant. A prospective, uncontrolled study reported that combined treatment significantly increased motility and mean seminal plasma glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activity.

Carotenoids:

Carotenoids work synergistically with Se and vitamin E and have a recommended dietary allowances value of 1000 mg per day. Another carotenoid of interest is lycopene – naturally derived from fruits and vegetables. Lycopene is found in high concentrations in the testes and seminal plasma, with lower levels in infertile men. A study reported that twice a day dose of 200 mg for 3 months resulted in a statistically significant improvement in sperm concentration of 66% of patients and motility of 53%.

Glutathione and N-acetyl cysteine:

Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant reducing agent found in the body, protecting lipids, proteins and nucleic acids against oxidative damage. GSH combines with vitamin E and Se to form glutathione peroxidase, administration of 600 mg for 2 months by intramuscular injection in 20 infertile men significantly increased sperm motion characteristics, previously improved forward progression. GSH deficiency may render the midpiece unstable, resulting in defective morphology and motility. N-acetyl cysteine ​​(NAC) replenishes GSH while scavenging free radicals and reducing ROS production in human ejaculate. NAC plays an important role in germ cell survival in human seminiferous tubules in vitro.

Pentoxifylline:

Pentoxifylline is a competitive nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor that raises intracellular cAMP and reduces inflammation by inhibiting TNF-a and leukotriene synthesis. Pentoxifylline has been shown to decrease ROS production reserve sperm motility in vitro and improve semen parameters in vivo. Orally administrated pentoxifylline had no effect at a low dosage, whereas a higher dosage increased sperm motility and some sperm motion parameters without altering sperm fertilizing ability.

Special mention-hCG:

Decreased amounts of LH production fail to initiate spermatogenesis that causing oligospermia due to secondary deficiency of testosterone. Such patients greatly benefit from a weekly dose of hCG because there is no endogenous production of hCG in male population.

Purified hCG is an effective substitute for LH since the structural homology between these two hormones which act through the same Leydig cell receptor.

A study shown that weekly injections of hCG administered in divided dose of 5000IU each week intramuscularly for four months, sperm count each month shown progressive increase in their number. Seventeen patients were in this group each of them had oligospermia as it was seen from their sperm count during the screening procedure. Progressive use of hCG in four month produces significant changes in the quantity of sperm count with initial average value of 25 million / ml rising to average 69 million / ml in four months. All of the 17 patients had normal levels of other hormone except one patient whose prolactin was elevated to 36ng / ml. Use of hCG in these patients mimics the effect of LH by binding to LH receptor which in turn activate the cyclic AMP cascade and ultimately resulting in the synthesis of testosterone which is primary hormone for the spermatogenesis. Thus hCG results in the increased level of testosterone which in turn potentiate the spermatogenesis.

KEY POINTS

• Oxidative stress plays an important role in male infertility

• Excessive production of reactive oxygen species, in particular hydrogen peroxide, can induce lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation and lead to sperm apoptosis

• Data on live births are available only for vitamin E and zinc

• A recent Cochrane analysis concluded that antioxidants may improve pregnancy and live birth rates in the context of assisted reproductive techniques.

• There is a need for well-designed and adequately powered randomized controlled trials investigating the impact of antioxidants on male infertility

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Chemical Happiness

Most of us measure happiness as a product of various material factors like health, wealth and success. So this means that if we are healthy and successful we must be happy. Then why do we suffer from discontentment and meaninglessness despite being successful in our career and endeavors? Psychologists and biologists now believe our biochemistry has a greater level in determining how happy we are and how happy we can ever be. As Yuval Noah Harari in his book “Sapiens” said that the happy happiness comes only from Serotonin, Dopamine and oxytocin.

Women on average are twice as likely to suffer from depression as men. Their emotions and memory centers are stronger and bigger than that of men. If they understand how their brain reacts to external stimuli, they can get a hold of their emotions and feelings before responding unreasonably. Being aware of how your brain centers work can help you be mindful of what's going on in your head and think rationally without letting emotions get in your way. In the following points we explain the biochemical factors that are lined with female unhappiness.

1. Amygdala

It is the brain center for fear and emotions. A woman's amygdala is more easily activated by emotional nuance. Her amygdala responds strongly to a stressful situation or a pleasant one. This amygdala response triggers her hippo-campus which is the brain center for memory storage, to tag the details of that particular situation that letting her remember that particular situation for a fairly long period of time.

2. Emotional mirroring

Women can feel greater body sensations than men. This means the physical pain or the emotions that they feel are more intense. These body sensations help them to track and feel painful emotions. Just by observing someone in an emotional state, similar brain patterns are activated in a woman's brain letting her stress over situation which is not even hers. This is called Emotional mirroring.

3. Estrogen and Progesterone

Estrogen is the feel good brain chemical and progesterone is the 'relaxed and lazy' hormone. Women who ovaries make the most estrogen and progesterone are more resistant to stress because their brain secret more serotonin- a chemical that makes you feel relaxed and at ease. Serotonin changes in the body can cause frequent mood swings. Women tend to produce lower quantities of serotonin than men. Serotonin deficiency can cause mental health issues most notable depression and anxiety.

4. Gut feelings

Insula a region of brain that processes gut feelings is larger in women. As a woman's brain can track body sensations easily, her gut sensations are also intense. She gives a lot of attention to her gut feelings, ponders over it for a fairly longer period of time than a man would, on an average.

5. Sexual orgasm

Female orgasm creates feelings of intimidation and trust towards partners. It boosts electrochemical activities in the body and release feel-good chemicals such as dopamine, endorphin and oxytocin. The nerves in the clitoris communicate directly with the pleasure centers of a woman's brain. If those nerves are stimulated, they trigger a burst of feel good chemicals but if her clitoral nerves are not sensitive enough or if fear or guilty interfere at the time of stimulation there will be no orgasm. A female brain has to be turned off to turn on sexually. If she is stressed out or angry or her amygdala is on high, she would have hard time reaching orgasm.

6. High cortisol levels

Cortisol, the stress hormone, helps control blood sugar levels and regulate metabolism. But high cortisol levels can bring changes in menstrual cycle and cause anxiety and depression. Mood swings and changes to skin are also linked with it. Cortisol is made in the adrenal glands and tumor in adrenal glands can increase cortisol levels in the body.

There are also some other psychological factors that are linked with unhappiness.

• Less maternity care-children who do not get enough maternal care are more likely to be easily stressed and fearful as adults. They are more prone to anxiety disorders than those who get more maternity care.

• Communication- a female has larger communication centers in brain than men. Oral communication is quiet important for a woman for connection. Connecting through communicating activates the pleasure centers in a female brain, boosting release of dopamine (the feel good chemical).

• Conflicts- conflicts trigger negative chemical reaction in a woman's brain. It creates stress and fear. That is why women avoid conflict at all cost. The psychological stress of a conflict is quiet intense for a woman.

• Postpartum depression- 1 out of 10 women will become stressed after giving birth within an year.it can be due to lack of emotional support, conflicts at home or previous depression.

Our biochemical system determines our happiness levels. It has evolved in a way to keep our happiness constant, either too too sad nor too happy. We may feel momentary pleasure but it quickly falls and we are back to being the way we were before. But we all have different biochemical system. People born with cheerful biochemical system are blessed with high happiness levels. They may lose everything and everyone, go through a lot of miseries but they will remain happy. People born with gloomy biochemistry will find it hard to remain happy even if their life is perfect. It's hard for us to break free of our biologically determined limits. If we can alter our biochemical system, we can alter our levels of happiness.

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PCOS – One Of The Major Causes Of Infertility

A woman experiences different stages in a lifetime and one of these stages is pregnancy. In some countries, pregnancy is often considered as a new chapter in the life of a woman pregnant. However, many women have difficulties in conceiving. The inability in getting pregnant or carrying a pregnancy to a complete term is termed as infertility. There are different reasons behind infertility in females. The most well-known issue that females have to deal with is PCOS (Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome).

One Of The Main Reasons For Infertility Issues Is PCOS

PCOS, also known as Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome is a common reason behind anovulation and infertility among women.

Some experts may even term this health condition as PCOD (Polycystic Ovarian Disease), or PCO (Polycystic Ovaries). According to a few studies, Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome affects around 10-15% of females who are in reproductive age group. It is an exception normal issue nowdays.

The problem of infertility with polycystic ovaries is quite huge and women suffering from it often face a lot of difficulty in getting pregnant. They need proper treatment to enhance the chances of conceiving.

Females who have polycystic ovaries and infertility issues,
· They will not ovulate consistently.
· Their ovaries will contain numerous little cystic arrangements, around 2-9 mm in radius.

How Ovulation Functions Naturally

· A developed follicle, also termed as cystic structure is produced amid an ordinary menstrual cycle.
· The developed follicle that is prepared to ovulate is of size around 18 to 28mm in radius.
· Around fourteen days after ovulation the woman should get a period if she is not pregnant.
· The main distinction among normal and polycystic ovaries is that despite the polycystic ovaries consist of small small antral follicles with eggs in them, still the follicles fail to grow and develop effectively. So, no ovulation takes place in the woman.
· Females who are suffering from PCOS do not ovulate consistently and do not get normal menstrual cycle.

Major Symptoms Of PCOS (Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome)

· Oligomenorrhea, or irregular menstrual cycles
· Amenorrhea – A complete absence of menstruation in some cases
· The beginning of excess development of hair on facial and body called as hirsutism
· Generally, have additional male hormone testosterone and androstenedione, which causes high testosterone levels in the blood.

Other Symptoms Of PCOS (Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome)

· Pelvic pain
· Infertility
· Depression
· Acne
· Weight gain

Treatments For PCOS (Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome) Or Infertility Problem

· The patient must lead a healthy lifestyle for example exercise regularly, consume a healthy diet, control weight, and quit smoking, and stop alcohol consumption.
· Hormone therapy is the main treatment provided by the gynecologist .
· To help you start to ovulate, the gynecologists will give you right medicines that can also help with acne and excessive hair growth.
· Check-ups to catch any complications caused by PCOS (Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome), like uterine cancer, heart disease, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and diabetes.

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Are PCOS And Depression Connected?

Many patients often ask if there is a connection between PCOS (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome) and depression. PCOS expands the chances of a female getting depression. Different hormones, alongside adapting to a troublesome medical condition, are the guilty parties. Depression can be a particularly alarming symptom of PCOS, as it drains your vitality level to get help and make improvements.

There's no doubt that emotional results of PCOS can be damaging, there are steps that you can take. A good lifestyle, which incorporates a nutritious diet, physical exercise, nourishing supplements as well as medicines prescribed by gynecologist, can help you bring your depression caused by PCOS under control.

A possible Polycystic Ovary Syndrome mood disorder that can go from mild to extreme, depression is a disorder that has the ability to influence how you work & perform every day. Some people have a wrong assumption that it is something just like being sad or unhappy, but depression is nothing that individuals can control as easily as their emotions. Women with PCOS (Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome) can develop one of the 3 types of depressions:

· Occasional Affective Disorder – This pressure of sadness happens amid shorter days or winter when there's a decline in daylight and it causes periodic depression. A few scientists indicate changing seasons as the reason behind this health condition.

· Dysthymia – It is a chronic form of depression and dysthymia can affect a patient for a significant length of time and can happen along with different types of depression.

· Major Depressive Disorder – The most extreme kind of depression, this health problem usually leaves for months and cause difficulty for people to work. This problem can happen as both are 1 time issue and a recurrence disease.

PCOS (Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome) is quite a personal condition, which varies from patient to patient. So, there's no clear way to explain that how it's going to affect you emotionally and physically. Also, there's no concrete evidence to explain the relationship between PCOS and different forms of depression.

The Most Effective Method To Beat Depression

There is no exact cure available for PCOS (Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome), but females who follow new lifestyle are able to deal with the condition. The best gynecologists say that by getting a healthy diet that is low in sugar and carbs, and maximizing fiber intake, a PCOS patient can control her insulin levels and, therefore, improve the balance of her hormones. A patient can reclaim her heath by combining this with the consumption of nutritional supplements such as minerals and vitamins, and with a regular exercise routine.

PCOS causes various problems for patients to overcome. Depression is one of many troubling symptoms caused by this health issue. However, by visiting the best gynecologist you can get proper treatment for your PCOS problem.

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